This is a Victorian bone chess set in the famous 'Barleycorn' Pattern. The Barleycorn pattern was one of the most popular English patterns used in the 19th century. The name comes from the carved wheatsheaf decoration that can sometimes be found on these sets. 'John Barleycorn' was also the name of historical English folk song.
This particular set is very similar in style to sets listed in Jaques' pattern books, which were shown to retailers to help them select their stock. The set comes with a modern maple box.